Research Interests Prof. Makela's research interests lie in multi-technique remote sensing of the Earth's ionosphere. He works with ground- and satellite-based instrumentation to study both the quiet-time and storm-time behavior of this region at low- and mid-latitudes. To accomplish this, he develops, tests and deploys suites of sensors to sites around the world. These instruments include portable imaging systems, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Prof. Makela's research group is currently working on developing new techniques and algorithms to simultaneously analyze these multiple datasets to better understand the underlying electrodynamics of instability processes in the equatorial and mid-latitude ionosphere. These instabilities can cause problems for satellite navigation and communication signals that have to propagate through them. Understanding how and when they develop will lead to more robust systems.